Cookies appeared in the human diet at approximately the same time as bread and differed greatly from the cookies we eat nowadays, as back then sugar or cocoa beans were not known yet. Today cookies are an integral part of the confectionery market, and due to the wide product range available consumers can choose a treat to their liking.
The volume of Russian production of sweet and dry cookies (including ginger biscuits) is estimated at around 800 thousand tons per year. At the same time the largest part – 85% – falls on sweet cookies. In the regional structure of sweet cookie production the leader is the Central Federal District, the share of which is around 26% of the output volume of this product type. Producers of the Volga Federal District are second with the share of 23%. Around 20% of sweet cookies are produced in the Siberian Federal District.
The largest share of dry cookies – 48% – is also produced in the Central Federal District. Second place belongs to manufacturers of the Siberian Federal District, where around 22% of dry biscuits are produced. The three leading regions also include the Volga Federal District with the share of about 17% of the total production volume.
The share of ginger biscuits in Russian production is insignificant and amounts to around 1.5–2%. Half of this volume (52%) is produced in the Volga Federal District; 35% fall on the Central Federal District, whereas the share of the third leader, the Siberian Federal District, amounts to around 8%.
According to Rosstat, the highest consumer prices for cookies can be observed in Chukotka Autonomous Region – about 274 rubles per kilogram, whereas the lowest prices can be found in Omsk region – 106 rubles per kilogram. The average consumer price for Russia on the whole is around 148 rubles per kilogram of cookies.
Apart from several hundred domestic producers, foreign players are present in the Russian cookie market, their share amounting to about 2–2.5%. In 2016, imports of cookies of all types into Russia equaled 15.4 thousand tons valued at $ 38.6 million total. Compared to 2015, the volume of imports decreased, the decline equaling 1.2% in physical terms and 7% in monetary terms.
In 2016, cookies from around fifty countries were imported into Russia. The leader among these countries was Poland, which accounted for 18.5% of the volume of cookies imported, or 2.8 thousand tons. Compared to 2015, Polish producers increased their presence in cookie imports by 4%. Italy was second with the share of 15.9% of the volume of imports, or 2.4 thousand tons. It should be noted that a year earlier the share of Italian cookie manufacturers was lower and equaled 12.8%. China is last among the three leaders, its share amounting to 9.3% of imports. In physical terms, Chinese manufacturers supplied 1.4 thousand tons of cookies to the Russian market. These three countries are followed by Vietnam, Serbia, the United Kingdom and others.
Despite the small import volumes compared to Russian domestic production, the number of manufacturers in cookie imports amounted to around 450 companies in 2016. The leader was “Lotte Confectionery Co., Ltd” with headquarters in South Korea and production facilities in several countries of the world. The share of this company equaled 12.5% of the overall cookie imports in volume terms. The range of this producer includes sweet cookies, chocolate-covered and not, as well as crackers. “Heinz Italia S.P.A” was second among cookie producers, its share amounting to 9.2% against 5.7% in 2015. This manufacturer mainly supplies baby biscuits to the Russian market. The third leader is the Vietnamese “Biscafun Confectionery Company” with the share of 8.9%. The bulk of imports by this producer falls on chocolate-covered cookies under the “Choco Pie” trademark. The Polish company “Lajkonik Snacks S.P.Z.O.O”, which ranked fourth, supplies salted cookies to the Russian market; the share of the company amounted to 6.7% of imports in physical terms. The top 5 producers also include “Konditori Malencic” LLC from Serbia, its range including both sweet and salted cookies.
On the Russian side, around 330 companies were participants of the cookie market in 2016 (mainly trading companies).
Exports of domestically produced cookies exceed import volumes in both physical and monetary terms. In 2016 Russian exporters supplied 28.1 thousand tons of cookies valued at $ 42.4 million to foreign markets. Compared to 2015, export volumes declined by 11% in both physical and monetary terms.
Products by the following Russian cookie manufacturers are the most popular abroad: “Konditerskaya Fabrika (Confectionery Factory) “Belogorye” OJSC (sweet cookies and crackers), “Konti-Rus” JSC (mainly sandwich cookies, chocolate-covered and not), “Mars” LLC (chocolate-covered cookies), “KDV Group” LLC (baby biscuits, sweet cookies, and crackers), “Kellogg Rus” LLC (sweet cookies and crackers), “AKF” LLC (sweet cookies), “KF im. Samoylovoy (Confectionery Factory n.a. Samoylova)” CJSC, “Sladkaya Sloboda (Sweet Sloboda Settlement)” LLC (sweet cookies and crackers), “Sladonezh” OJSC, and others.
The CIS countries and a number of other neighbouring countries were the main purchasers of Russian cookies in 2016, Ukraine being the leader with the share of 20.7% of export volumes, or 5.8 thousand tons of products. The volume supplied to Tajikistan was 400 tons lower (19.3%). Georgia’s share equaled 3.6 thousand tons, or 12.9% of the total export volume. These were followed by Mongolia (3.3 thousand tons), Azerbaijan (2.6 thousand tons), China (1.9 thousand tons) and around 50 other countries.
According to the results of the study, a slight decline can be observed in the foreign trade market of cookies. During the time period considered imports declined by 1.2%, and the trend is likely to stay in the near future. The Russian population has been increasingly saving on food products, and prices by domestic producers are more attractive in this regard. The main changes expected in cookie exports concern trade with China, where Russian produce has been getting more demanded lately, cookie exports alone having increased three-fold over the past year!
Head of Analytical Department